The coast is where the land and the sea meet. Different types of coastlines depend on the type of rock and the force of the sea waves. The coastline landscape is continuously changing because it is continually being moulded by the sea.


The rocky walls rising up from the sea become eroded by the waves and these result in caves and creeks or inlets.


Fjords are submerged glacier valleys flooded by water and forming deep inlets in the coastline of Scandinavia.

Sandy Beaches

When a sea or a river deposits fine materials along the coast, these deposits form low, sandy beaches.

What How Why

How is the height of a mountain measured?

To measure the height of mountain, the surface of the sea is taken as the point of reference. The height of the mountain is the distance between the top of the mountain and the surface of the sea.


The sand on beaches originates from the crushing of rocks, due to rain, wind, the seas and rivers. The color of the sand depends on the rocks from which it originates. For example, the sand near a coral reef is white or pinky-white, whilst sand near volcanoes is dark grey.